Ayurveda is based on Tridoshasiddhanta called vata pitta and kapha. Equilibrium of these essential for health. Equilibrium depends on nature of food, environmental factor, hereditary factor etc. food which we consume also have different qualities which balance tridosha. Normal digestion of food leads to nourishment of dosha and dhatu, same time unwanted substance is separated during this process of digestion. This waste product refers to malas those should be thrown out of the body at normal frequency. Such one place of body where mala is accumulated and excreted time to time is “guda” .This is major place of vatadosha one of the important doshas.
GudaPradesha (region of rectum and anus) considered as marma (vital organ), any injury may lead to death. Normal gut movement is controlled by vata. Therefore guda is one of the important regions of the body which controls all movements (gati) of gut and body parts. Normal movement of vata establishes equilibrium of dosha. Therefore vitiation of gudasthana(region) leads to vata vitiation and may cause different systemic vata disorders also. In other words this is the one among the causes of vata disease (many times co related to neurological, musculoskeletal, endocrine etc diseases)
Deliberate Inhibition of natural urges (Vega dharana) also deliberate elevation of natural urges (Vega udeerana) consider to be important cause of vata vitiation. Even in case of urge for defecation also it holds goods. Common man should have minimum knowledge of diseases pertaining to Guda (rectum and anus), so that many of the preventive and conservative measures can be adopted before the disease reaching to a complicated stage.
Words like piles, fissure etc. are discussed by general public in day to day life. Whether they really meant those words? Many times these words used wrongly or as synonymous, though related to ano-rectal region. For all ano-rectal problems assuming that they suffer from piles, people consult doctor. What are these disorders? How they differ each other etc. discussed here.
A mostly ano-rectal disease are not life threatening diseases, but these leads to most discomfort to the patients and deteriorates quality of life of the patients. High incidence of the diseases and lack of knowledge in the public about these diseases made quacks to treat these, in injudicious way. Therefore we find number of advertisements, display boards in the public places about the treatments of these diseases.
In this view, this is important for general public to know about these diseases, superior mode of Ayurveda treatments. Many people without consulting doctors simply consume commercially available Ayurvedic drugs for piles, irrespective of types of ano-rectal diseases. This is also because people are afraid of surgery as doctor may advice surgery.
Therefore commonly people prefer to consult person who assures treatments without surgery. In such circumstances patient may end with serious complications. In this view one should know management of these disorders by medicines and food habits.
‘Sushrutha’ a surgeon who lived in India in 500 BC,is considered as ‘Father of Surgery’ even today. Sushrutha Samhitha, his text on surgery, deals with etiopathogenesis, signs and symptoms and management of surgical diseases.
Proctology is also dealt with in detail along with their management. It can be practiced even today as it is minimally invasive, causes less injury, less pain and has the least recurrence rate.Kshara chikitsa a specialized treatment mentioned in Sushruthasamhita is a great contribution by Sushruthain the management of ano-rectal diseases.
Bhagandarachikistsa //Anal fistula:
An alkaline thread is passed through anal fistulous tract and changed every week, so that it helps in curettage and healing of tract with out leaving ulcer. This tract may have to be excised some times by putting four kinds of incisions on the fistula.
Naddeevrana chikitsa// pilonidal sinus:
After passing a probe in to the tract, direction or course of the tract is assessed and kshara sutra (alkaline thread) applied and changed at specific intervals This cures the diseases with out recurrence and no excision is required.
Arsha chikitsa// Haemorrhoids:
Alkaline paste is to be applied on piles for specific time .It will turn to black color with in few seconds. It will slough out completely without leaving residual stump of hemorrhoids.
Charmakeela / warts, papilla, skin tags, polyps etc:
It should be cauterized by agnikarma or may be excised.
Sanniruddhaguda/anal stricture, hyper tonic anal sphincter:
Sushrutha says that in such conditions, anal canal should be dilated using appropriate sized tubular or rod like instruments, with adequate lubrication, at specific intervals. If it does not respond, an incision to be put on anal ring laterally, avoiding midline
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Dr. Ramesh Bhat